Another Western Digital Green SSD dead without any pre-fail indication

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Published on January 8th 2022 - last updated on January 12th 2022 - Listed in Hardware Linux


A while ago, in July 2020, a Western Digital Green SSD died without any pre-fail indication. As the data was replicated in a RAID-1 array, there was no data loss.

Now, roughly one and a half years later, the second WD Green SSD from this raid array is now also dead - after a lifetime of 22704 hours (Power_on_hours).

SSD just died out of the blue

The annoying part? The disk just died out of the blue, without showing any pre-fail conditions such as grown bad blocks or similar. Luckily our monitoring, using the monitoring plugin check_smart, caught the failed disk:

 Info:    CRITICAL: Drive  WDC WDS240G2G0A-00JH30 S/N XXXXXX:  Health status: FAILED!

In the (test) server's dmesg, a lot of errors related to this disk could be seen:

root@testserver ~ # dmesg -T
[...]
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:11 2022] ata2.00: status: { DRDY ERR }
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:11 2022] ata2.00: error: { ABRT }
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:11 2022] ata2.00: configured for UDMA/133 (device error ignored)
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:11 2022] ata2: EH complete
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:11 2022] ata2.00: exception Emask 0x0 SAct 0x0 SErr 0x0 action 0x0
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:11 2022] ata2.00: irq_stat 0x40000001
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:11 2022] ata2.00: failed command: WRITE DMA EXT
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:11 2022] ata2.00: cmd 35/00:01:19:d5:b7/00:00:15:00:00/e0 tag 3 dma 512 out
                                    res 51/04:01:19:d5:b7/00:00:15:00:00/e0 Emask 0x1 (device error)
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:11 2022] ata2.00: status: { DRDY ERR }
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:11 2022] ata2.00: error: { ABRT }
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:11 2022] ata2.00: configured for UDMA/133 (device error ignored)
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:11 2022] ata2: EH complete
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:11 2022] ata2.00: exception Emask 0x0 SAct 0x0 SErr 0x0 action 0x0
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:11 2022] ata2.00: irq_stat 0x40000001
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:11 2022] ata2.00: failed command: WRITE DMA EXT
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:11 2022] ata2.00: cmd 35/00:01:19:d5:b7/00:00:15:00:00/e0 tag 5 dma 512 out
                                    res 51/04:01:19:d5:b7/00:00:15:00:00/e0 Emask 0x1 (device error)
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:11 2022] ata2.00: status: { DRDY ERR }
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:11 2022] ata2.00: error: { ABRT }
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:11 2022] ata2.00: configured for UDMA/133 (device error ignored)
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:11 2022] scsi_io_completion_action: 19 callbacks suppressed
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:11 2022] sd 1:0:0:0: [sdc] tag#5 FAILED Result: hostbyte=DID_OK driverbyte=DRIVER_SENSE cmd_age=0s
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:11 2022] sd 1:0:0:0: [sdc] tag#5 Sense Key : Illegal Request [current]
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:11 2022] sd 1:0:0:0: [sdc] tag#5 Add. Sense: Unaligned write command
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:11 2022] sd 1:0:0:0: [sdc] tag#5 CDB: Write(10) 2a 00 15 b7 d5 19 00 00 01 00
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:11 2022] print_req_error: 19 callbacks suppressed
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:11 2022] blk_update_request: I/O error, dev sdc, sector 364369177 op 0x1:(WRITE) flags 0x800 phys_seg 1 prio class 0
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:11 2022] ata2: EH complete
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:11 2022] ata2.00: exception Emask 0x0 SAct 0x0 SErr 0x0 action 0x0
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:11 2022] ata2.00: irq_stat 0x40000001
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:11 2022] ata2.00: failed command: WRITE DMA EXT
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:11 2022] ata2.00: cmd 35/00:01:1a:d5:b7/00:00:15:00:00/e0 tag 15 dma 512 out
                                    res 51/04:01:1a:d5:b7/00:00:15:00:00/e0 Emask 0x1 (device error)
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:11 2022] ata2.00: status: { DRDY ERR }
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:11 2022] ata2.00: error: { ABRT }
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:11 2022] ata2.00: configured for UDMA/133 (device error ignored)
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:11 2022] ata2: EH complete
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: exception Emask 0x0 SAct 0x0 SErr 0x0 action 0x0
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: irq_stat 0x40000001
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: failed command: WRITE DMA EXT
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: cmd 35/00:01:1a:d5:b7/00:00:15:00:00/e0 tag 8 dma 512 out
                                    res 51/04:01:1a:d5:b7/00:00:15:00:00/e0 Emask 0x1 (device error)
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: status: { DRDY ERR }
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: error: { ABRT }
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: configured for UDMA/133 (device error ignored)
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2: EH complete
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: exception Emask 0x0 SAct 0x0 SErr 0x0 action 0x0
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: irq_stat 0x40000001
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: failed command: WRITE DMA EXT
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: cmd 35/00:01:1a:d5:b7/00:00:15:00:00/e0 tag 5 dma 512 out
                                    res 51/04:01:1a:d5:b7/00:00:15:00:00/e0 Emask 0x1 (device error)
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: status: { DRDY ERR }
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: error: { ABRT }
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: configured for UDMA/133 (device error ignored)
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2: EH complete
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: exception Emask 0x0 SAct 0x0 SErr 0x0 action 0x0
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: irq_stat 0x40000001
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: failed command: WRITE DMA EXT
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: cmd 35/00:01:1a:d5:b7/00:00:15:00:00/e0 tag 7 dma 512 out
                                    res 51/04:01:1a:d5:b7/00:00:15:00:00/e0 Emask 0x1 (device error)
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: status: { DRDY ERR }
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: error: { ABRT }
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: configured for UDMA/133 (device error ignored)
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2: EH complete
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: exception Emask 0x0 SAct 0x0 SErr 0x0 action 0x0
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: irq_stat 0x40000001
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: failed command: WRITE DMA EXT
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: cmd 35/00:01:1a:d5:b7/00:00:15:00:00/e0 tag 9 dma 512 out
                                    res 51/04:01:1a:d5:b7/00:00:15:00:00/e0 Emask 0x1 (device error)
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: status: { DRDY ERR }
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: error: { ABRT }
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: configured for UDMA/133 (device error ignored)
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2: EH complete
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: exception Emask 0x0 SAct 0x0 SErr 0x0 action 0x0
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: irq_stat 0x40000001
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: failed command: WRITE DMA EXT
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: cmd 35/00:01:1a:d5:b7/00:00:15:00:00/e0 tag 11 dma 512 out
                                    res 51/04:01:1a:d5:b7/00:00:15:00:00/e0 Emask 0x1 (device error)
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: status: { DRDY ERR }
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: error: { ABRT }
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: configured for UDMA/133 (device error ignored)
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] sd 1:0:0:0: [sdc] tag#11 FAILED Result: hostbyte=DID_OK driverbyte=DRIVER_SENSE cmd_age=0s
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] sd 1:0:0:0: [sdc] tag#11 Sense Key : Illegal Request [current]
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] sd 1:0:0:0: [sdc] tag#11 Add. Sense: Unaligned write command
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] sd 1:0:0:0: [sdc] tag#11 CDB: Write(10) 2a 00 15 b7 d5 1a 00 00 01 00
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] blk_update_request: I/O error, dev sdc, sector 364369178 op 0x1:(WRITE) flags 0x800 phys_seg 1 prio class 0
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2: EH complete
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: exception Emask 0x0 SAct 0x0 SErr 0x0 action 0x0
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: irq_stat 0x40000001
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: failed command: WRITE DMA EXT
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: cmd 35/00:01:1b:d5:b7/00:00:15:00:00/e0 tag 6 dma 512 out
                                    res 51/04:01:1b:d5:b7/00:00:15:00:00/e0 Emask 0x1 (device error)
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: status: { DRDY ERR }
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: error: { ABRT }
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: configured for UDMA/133 (device error ignored)
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] sd 1:0:0:0: [sdc] tag#10 FAILED Result: hostbyte=DID_OK driverbyte=DRIVER_SENSE cmd_age=0s
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] sd 1:0:0:0: [sdc] tag#10 Sense Key : Illegal Request [current]
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] sd 1:0:0:0: [sdc] tag#10 Add. Sense: Unaligned write command
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] sd 1:0:0:0: [sdc] tag#10 CDB: Write(10) 2a 00 15 b7 d5 1b 00 00 01 00
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] blk_update_request: I/O error, dev sdc, sector 364369179 op 0x1:(WRITE) flags 0x800 phys_seg 1 prio class 0
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2: EH complete
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: exception Emask 0x0 SAct 0x0 SErr 0x0 action 0x0
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: irq_stat 0x40000001
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: failed command: WRITE DMA EXT
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: cmd 35/00:01:1c:d5:b7/00:00:15:00:00/e0 tag 2 dma 512 out
                                    res 51/04:01:1c:d5:b7/00:00:15:00:00/e0 Emask 0x1 (device error)
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: status: { DRDY ERR }
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: error: { ABRT }
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: configured for UDMA/133 (device error ignored)
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] sd 1:0:0:0: [sdc] tag#8 FAILED Result: hostbyte=DID_OK driverbyte=DRIVER_SENSE cmd_age=0s
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] sd 1:0:0:0: [sdc] tag#8 Sense Key : Illegal Request [current]
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] sd 1:0:0:0: [sdc] tag#8 Add. Sense: Unaligned write command
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] sd 1:0:0:0: [sdc] tag#8 CDB: Write(10) 2a 00 15 b7 d5 1c 00 00 01 00
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] blk_update_request: I/O error, dev sdc, sector 364369180 op 0x1:(WRITE) flags 0x800 phys_seg 1 prio class 0
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2: EH complete
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: exception Emask 0x0 SAct 0x0 SErr 0x0 action 0x0
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: irq_stat 0x40000001
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: failed command: WRITE DMA EXT
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: cmd 35/00:01:1d:d5:b7/00:00:15:00:00/e0 tag 15 dma 512 out
                                    res 51/04:01:1d:d5:b7/00:00:15:00:00/e0 Emask 0x1 (device error)
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: status: { DRDY ERR }
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: error: { ABRT }
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: configured for UDMA/133 (device error ignored)
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] sd 1:0:0:0: [sdc] tag#13 FAILED Result: hostbyte=DID_OK driverbyte=DRIVER_SENSE cmd_age=0s
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] sd 1:0:0:0: [sdc] tag#13 Sense Key : Illegal Request [current]
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] sd 1:0:0:0: [sdc] tag#13 Add. Sense: Unaligned write command
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] sd 1:0:0:0: [sdc] tag#13 CDB: Write(10) 2a 00 15 b7 d5 1e 00 00 01 00
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] blk_update_request: I/O error, dev sdc, sector 364369182 op 0x1:(WRITE) flags 0x800 phys_seg 1 prio class 0
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2: EH complete
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: exception Emask 0x0 SAct 0x0 SErr 0x0 action 0x0
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: irq_stat 0x40000001
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: failed command: WRITE DMA EXT
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: cmd 35/00:01:1f:d5:b7/00:00:15:00:00/e0 tag 17 dma 512 out
                                    res 51/04:01:1f:d5:b7/00:00:15:00:00/e0 Emask 0x1 (device error)
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: status: { DRDY ERR }
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: error: { ABRT }
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2.00: configured for UDMA/133 (device error ignored)
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] sd 1:0:0:0: [sdc] tag#10 FAILED Result: hostbyte=DID_OK driverbyte=DRIVER_SENSE cmd_age=0s
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] sd 1:0:0:0: [sdc] tag#10 Sense Key : Illegal Request [current]
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] sd 1:0:0:0: [sdc] tag#10 Add. Sense: Unaligned write command
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] sd 1:0:0:0: [sdc] tag#10 CDB: Write(10) 2a 00 15 b7 d5 1f 00 00 01 00
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] blk_update_request: I/O error, dev sdc, sector 364369183 op 0x1:(WRITE) flags 0x800 phys_seg 1 prio class 0
[Sat Jan  8 09:13:12 2022] ata2: EH complete

Linux's mdadm also detected the SSD as failed and removed it from the RAID-1 array:

root@testserver ~ # cat /proc/mdstat
Personalities : [raid1] [linear] [multipath] [raid0] [raid6] [raid5] [raid4] [raid10]
md3 : active raid1 sdb1[1] sdc1[0](F)
      234298968 blocks super 1.2 [2/1] [_U]
      bitmap: 2/2 pages [8KB], 65536KB chunk

[...]

Hence the second monitoring plugin, check_raid, also alerted:

Info:    CRITICAL: mdstat:[md3(223.44 GiB raid1):F:sdc1:_U, md2(884.82 GiB raid1):UU, md0(23.27 GiB raid1):UU, md1(23.27 GiB raid1):UU]

Any pre-fail indication?

That's the rather disappointing part of this SSD becoming defective: The drive's SMART attributes show no indications of a pre-fail event (such as grown bad blocks, re-allocated blocks or similar):

root@testserver ~ # smartctl -a /dev/sdc
smartctl 6.6 2017-11-05 r4594 [x86_64-linux-5.10.0-0.bpo.7-amd64] (local build)
Copyright (C) 2002-17, Bruce Allen, Christian Franke, www.smartmontools.org

=== START OF INFORMATION SECTION ===
Model Family:     WD Blue / Red / Green SSDs
Device Model:     WDC WDS240G2G0A-00JH30
Serial Number:    XXXXXXXX
LU WWN Device Id: 5 001b44 8b9fb47d1
Firmware Version: UF500000
User Capacity:    240,065,183,744 bytes [240 GB]
Sector Size:      512 bytes logical/physical
Rotation Rate:    Solid State Device
Form Factor:      2.5 inches
Device is:        In smartctl database [for details use: -P show]
ATA Version is:   ACS-2 T13/2015-D revision 3
SATA Version is:  SATA 3.2, 6.0 Gb/s (current: 6.0 Gb/s)
Local Time is:    Sat Jan  8 10:51:25 2022 CET
SMART support is: Available - device has SMART capability.
SMART support is: Enabled

=== START OF READ SMART DATA SECTION ===
SMART overall-health self-assessment test result: FAILED!
Drive failure expected in less than 24 hours. SAVE ALL DATA.
No failed Attributes found.


General SMART Values:
Offline data collection status:  (0x00)    Offline data collection activity
                    was never started.
                    Auto Offline Data Collection: Disabled.
Self-test execution status:      (  32)    The self-test routine was interrupted
                    by the host with a hard or soft reset.
Total time to complete Offline
data collection:         (  120) seconds.
Offline data collection
capabilities:              (0x15) SMART execute Offline immediate.
                    No Auto Offline data collection support.
                    Abort Offline collection upon new
                    command.
                    No Offline surface scan supported.
                    Self-test supported.
                    No Conveyance Self-test supported.
                    No Selective Self-test supported.
SMART capabilities:            (0x0003)    Saves SMART data before entering
                    power-saving mode.
                    Supports SMART auto save timer.
Error logging capability:        (0x01)    Error logging supported.
                    General Purpose Logging supported.
Short self-test routine
recommended polling time:      (   2) minutes.
Extended self-test routine
recommended polling time:      (  42) minutes.

SMART Attributes Data Structure revision number: 1
Vendor Specific SMART Attributes with Thresholds:
ID# ATTRIBUTE_NAME          FLAG     VALUE WORST THRESH TYPE      UPDATED  WHEN_FAILED RAW_VALUE
  5 Reallocated_Sector_Ct   0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
  9 Power_On_Hours          0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       22704
 12 Power_Cycle_Count       0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       38
165 Block_Erase_Count       0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       54090
166 Minimum_PE_Cycles_TLC   0x0032   100   100   ---    Old_age   Always       -       628
167 Max_Bad_Blocks_per_Die  0x0032   100   100   ---    Old_age   Always       -       0
168 Maximum_PE_Cycles_TLC   0x0032   100   100   ---    Old_age   Always       -       700
169 Total_Bad_Blocks        0x0032   100   100   ---    Old_age   Always       -       235
170 Grown_Bad_Blocks        0x0032   100   100   ---    Old_age   Always       -       0
171 Program_Fail_Count      0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
172 Erase_Fail_Count        0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
173 Average_PE_Cycles_TLC   0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       628
174 Unexpected_Power_Loss   0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       24
184 End-to-End_Error        0x0032   100   100   ---    Old_age   Always       -       0
187 Reported_Uncorrect      0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
188 Command_Timeout         0x0032   100   100   ---    Old_age   Always       -       0
194 Temperature_Celsius     0x0022   054   057   000    Old_age   Always       -       46 (Min/Max 17/57)
199 UDMA_CRC_Error_Count    0x0032   100   100   ---    Old_age   Always       -       0
230 Media_Wearout_Indicator 0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       0x9a367d3c9a36
232 Available_Reservd_Space 0x0033   100   100   005    Pre-fail  Always       -       100
233 NAND_GB_Written_TLC     0x0032   100   100   ---    Old_age   Always       -       157342
234 NAND_GB_Written_SLC     0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       412445
241 Host_Writes_GiB         0x0030   100   100   000    Old_age   Offline      -       135873
242 Host_Reads_GiB          0x0030   100   100   000    Old_age   Offline      -       14003
244 Temp_Throttle_Status    0x0032   000   100   ---    Old_age   Always       -       0

SMART Error Log Version: 1
No Errors Logged

SMART Self-test log structure revision number 1
No self-tests have been logged.  [To run self-tests, use: smartctl -t]

Selective Self-tests/Logging not supported

At least the drive was still accessible to retrieve the current SMART values. Compared to the previous WD Green SSD failure, this drive worked well for 22704 hours. The previous drive already stopped working after 9833 hours.

The defect drive was now replaced with a larger Western Digital Blue SSD to also grow the mdadm RAID array.

The TBW warranty limit

Looking at previous SSD failures of the past years:

There's no official recommendation when to replace a SSD drive, but there's one more thing to look at: The TBW warranty limit.

SSD vendors usually give 3 or 5 years of warranty for a SSD drive. With one exception: The TBW (Total Bytes Written) value of the SSD cannot exceeded the warranty limit. This counter shows the number of Bytes written on the SSD. According to the WD Green SSD datasheet, the warranty limit is set to 80 TB:

Looking at the SMART value 241 from above's output (which is shown as Host_Writes_GiB), indicates that a total of 135873 GB (= 132.69 TB) were written on this SSD. The current value is clearly above the 80 TB TBW limit. It seems that this limit was not simply chosen for warranty (money back) decisions, but also seems to show a life time threshold.


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